The Parts of Speech in Latin
Interjection, Conjunction and Preposition
- Interjections are words that convey emotion and are not directly related to the rest of the sentence. Examples of interjections in English include ah, oh and ouch. Conjunctions join phrases, clauses and words; examples in English include, or and but. Prepositions are words that show relationships between a noun or pronoun and some other word in a sentence. Examples of English prepositions include in, by and with.
Verbs and Adverbs
- Verbs are words that convey a state of being or an action. Latin has both transitive and intransitive verbs. Examples of transitive verbs in English include hit, kill and sell and examples of intransitive verbs include stand, run and sleep. Transitive verbs must always have a direct object, but intransitive verbs do not require one. Adverbs modify or describe a verb, adverb or adjective and, in English, include words like too, well and slowly.
- A noun is a word used to name a person, thing, idea or place. Nouns in Latin have gender, masculine or feminine, and number, singular or plural. Latin has seven cases, nominative, accusative, dative, genitive, vocative, locative and ablative, which indicate the relationship of the noun to the rest of the sentence and the spelling of a noun changes depending on which case is used. Examples of English nouns are book, park and brother.
- Pronouns are words that replace nouns in a sentence, such as he, himself and who. Latin pronouns include personal, reflexive, interrogative, demonstrative, indefinite, relative and possessive. Personal pronouns in English include words such as she, I, you and it and possessive pronouns show ownership, such as his and yours. Reflexive pronouns refer back to a sentence's subject and interrogative pronouns are used for questions and include the words whom, what and whose. Demonstrative pronouns refer to specific things and include the words that, this and those and indefinite pronouns convey non-specific concepts such as something or someone.
- Adjectives are used to modify, or describe, nouns and pronouns. Examples of adjectives include smart, short, fast and pretty. Latin has five types of adjectives: descriptive, possessive, demonstrative, indefinite and interrogative.